Though prescribed amphetamines are legal, taking the drugs without a prescription is illegal in the U.S. Amphetamines are stimulant drugs that increase alertness and wakefulness. As a Schedule II Substance, it has a high potential for abuse and addiction. By working with a reputable, Amphetamine Addiction research-based treatment program, individuals who have struggled with amphetamine abuse or addiction have a greater chance of moving forward in recovery and starting a future free from amphetamine abuse. Students often abuse amphetamine through off-label use as a study aid.

Amphetamine Addiction

The review also indicated that BCBT alone or in combination with pharmacological treatments was efficacious in either abstinence from amphetamines or reduced amphetamines abuse with medium or large effect sizes [20–23]. The percentage of abstinence from amphetamines had a range from 40.8% [21] to 58.3% [20] among treated participants at six-month follow-up. A review indicated that the long-term efficacy of behavioral interventions is high in terms of treating substance abuse [26]. Outcome measures were any reported impact of treatment related to AMPH/MA use. A study of atomoxetine (80 mg po OD), a selective norepinephrine (noradrenaline) reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), randomised 69 opioid and ATS-dependent participants to 16 weeks of treatment, assessing ATS use as the primary outcome [58]. The proportion of ATS-negative UDS was higher in the atomoxetine arm compared with placebo, but achieved only a small effect size, while there was no statistically significant difference in days abstinent.

How Can You Prevent Amphetamine Addiction?

If you experience strong drug cravings, you may find it easier to go through amphetamine withdrawal in a hospital setting. Hospitalization may also help if you have negative mood changes, including aggression and suicidal behavior. You may need to use a similar drug to relieve or avoid amphetamine withdrawal symptoms. You may become dependent if you use these drugs without a prescription. It’s even possible to develop a use disorder if you take amphetamines according to your doctor’s directions. You should only take the amount of amphetamine as prescribed by your healthcare provider.

Providers will monitor how your body reacts to amphetamines to see if they alleviate your symptoms and prevent side effects, especially addiction. A person’s tolerance begins slowly, which could result in dependence over time. If you take amphetamines and feel you are dependent on the drug, talk with your healthcare provider.

Outlook and recovery

When legally prescribed, they are typically used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. Lara Ray, a psychologist who studies medical treatments for addiction at UCLA and was not involved with this research, says the study changes the treatment landscape for roughly 1.6 million Americans who are addicted to methamphetamines. While a success rate of just over 11% may not sound like a home run, Volkow noted that other medications used to treat brain disorders, including mental illness and addiction, often have similar response rates in patients. This medication therapy provides another tool for doctors to try with patients. The use of amphetamine with other serotonergic agents and/or CYP2D6 inhibitors (including fluoxetine, paroxetine, and bupropion) can increase the risk of serotonin syndrome. Amphetamine should be started cautiously in patients taking these medications, with close monitoring for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome.

Finally, the accessibility of such treatments remains difficult for a large proportion of patients in the community [8]. Therefore, brief cognitive-behavioural therapy (BCBT) has been introduced by Baker and colleagues for treating amphetamines abuse/use disorder to overcome these operational barriers to implementation [9]. Pharmacological treatments combined with BCBT remain cost-effective for drug treatment systems, due to the limited number of treatment sessions and the efficacy of use [9]. Moreover, high quality in implementing the treatment can be ensured due to tailoring the treatment to the needs of each individual [9]. Furthermore, using pharmacological treatments combined with BCBT is applicable to a broad range of patients due to the practical techniques and skills that such therapies impart to patients [10].

Kratom Addiction

The physical exam findings may include altered mental status, hyperactivity, agitation, confusion, and gross psychosis with paranoia requiring chemical and physical restraints. Some very severe findings may include increases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertensive emergencies, and stroke. Skin flushing can often be seen with amphetamine toxicity, and other cutaneous findings include any track marks cellulitis or abscesses that would require immediate attention. Increased HIV and hepatitis B and C transmission are possible related consequences of increased methamphetamine abuse, not only in individuals who inject the drug but also in non-injecting methamphetamine abusers. Among injection drug users, infection with HIV and other infectious diseases is spread primarily through the use of contaminated syringes, needles, or other paraphernalia by more than one person. The intoxicating effects of methamphetamine can also alter judgment and inhibition, which may lead people to engage in unsafe behaviors.

At all times, the protection of the patient and the medical staff need to be considered if agitation or psychosis is present. Amphetamines rank as a schedule II/IIN controlled substance (2/2N), which means that there is a high potential for the drug to cause physical dependence (addiction). Approved by the FDA in the early 2000s, Adderall is an amphetamine and dextroamphetamine combined. As with similar stimulants, methamphetamine is most often used in a “binge and crash” pattern.

The drug (to a lesser extent) acts as a dopaminergic and adrenergic reuptake inhibitor, and in higher concentrations as a monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) [1, 21]. The CNS effects produced by MA are mostly the result of influencing levels of dopamine and norepinephrine, and to a lesser extent serotonin [1, 21]. There have been fears that long-term use of amphetamines for ADHD could affect brain development, prevent physical growth, and increase the risk of drug abuse later in life.

Amphetamine Addiction

Studies also suggest increased dopaminergic pathways lead to glutamate excesses in the cerebral cortex, altering the function of cortical GABAergic neurons. This damage leads to dysregulation of glutamate in the cerebral cortex, a precursor to psychosis. Prior psychiatric studies have found that GABAergic cortical dysfunction seems to relate to schizophrenia. If you are taking more than your prescribed dose of amphetamines or you are taking amphetamines that your provider did not prescribe to you, talk with your provider.

Strength and limitations of this study

Prescription amphetamine drugs such as Adderall, Ritalin, and Dexedrine, are Schedule II drugs. While these can be abused, they can be helpful for attention deficit and other disorders. However, meth has a high potential for abuse, which can mean dangerous and fatal consequences. Meth is smoked, snorted, injected, and can reach the brain quickly, causing considerable damage.

  • In addition, the club drug known as ecstasy, Molly, or MDMA is a type of amphetamine that has a mind-altering effect.
  • An additional study reported on naltrexone and n-acetyl cysteine (see below).
  • The second study examined buprenorphine (8 mg SL OD) versus methadone (40 mg po OD) over 17 days, with 20 participants in each study arm.
  • Dosing was tapered from 300 mg po OD for the first week, to 200 mg po OD in Week 2 and 100 mg po OD in Week 3.
  • A 5 mg pill — which is light blue — says “M A5” to denote the formula.
  • Amphetamines belong to a class of CNS stimulants called phenethylamines.

An individual’s brain chemistry changes during regular misuse of a substance or activity. The brain’s reward circuit changes, reducing a person’s ability to exercise self-control and leading to strong urges to continue. When someone misuses a substance consistently over time, they may find that they need more and more of the substance to feel the same degree of euphoria.